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When looking at complex systems, it is always useful to break them into smaller units. For a comparison of the DSS and the HMIS it seems to be most promising to elaborate distinct levels of data processing according to stages which both system have in their respective information chain. From the objects under observation up to the observing subjects the following broad stages are prevalent in both systems:

  1. Data are being produced by objects in the real world.
  2. These data are collected and stored into operational data stores, which are designed to directly support activities in the real world.
  3. The operational data are consolidated, aggregated and reduced into data-stores, which were designed to directly support analysis.
  4. The reduced data are compiled, analysed and transformed into results as a basis for decision making.

The analysis of the two systems shall therefore be done on the levels of the expected results, the reduced data, the operational data and the real world. On each level it can then be observed

  • which type of information is available in which granularity,
  • how and at which cost this information was produced,
  • how valid the information is and, as a result,
  • under which conditions the information from the two systems can be linked.

The following slides will align the two systems exemplatory for each level.


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This page was build and web-published by Uwe Wahser (
in July 2001. Last Revision: July 2001

List of Publications